Tag: Aluminum Supplier

A Guide to the Different Types of Heat Treatment

Interior View Of A Steel Factory

What are the different types of heat treatment?

  1. Hardening
  2. Annealing
  3. Normalizing
  4. Tempering
  5. Nitriding

 

Metals are perhaps some of the most useful construction and industrial materials in the world. Manufacturing processes wouldn’t be complete without incorporating some type of metal in their operations. While different kinds of manufactured metals offer various advantages for them to be utilized in specialized ways, the durability and stability they offer architectural structures, particularly in construction projects, make them highly desirable.

Some metals, however, would offer more benefits if the chemical structuring of their raw and pure forms were also chemically altered. Through the different types of heat treatment, the properties of some of the most commonly-used metals like steel, iron, or aluminum are improved, to strengthen them, or improve their flexibility and versatility.

If you want to know more about the different ways the chemical properties of metals are altered by heat treatment, continue reading.

 

Hardening

Before delving further into understanding this first type of heat treatment, it would be first important to understand why metals undergo such heat treatment processes. Typically, heat treatment is the process by which the structural and physical properties of a particular metal are manipulated, in order for it to be utilized in a particular manner.

For example, when a heat treatment process is applied to stainless steel, some of its properties, including hardenability, ductility, flexibility, and strength are improved. After, the resulting metal can be shaped in a limitless number of ways, depending on the particular industry’s use for it.

As with many heat treatment processes, hardening is a type of method which begins applying a particular amount of heat energy to the metal, to the point that it becomes a solution. One can view the process as something that ‘corrects’ an undesirable property within the material.

By turning the metal into a solution, hardening corrects the imperfections found within the particular metal’s crystal lattice structure. Lattice simply refers to the way the metal’s particles are organized to form a crystal. Through hardening, the metal’s level of strength is increased through the refining of the particles.

After the metal is turned into a solid solution by hardening, a form of rapid cooling called quenching is immediately applied to the metal, until it is left to cool at room temperature.

 

Annealing

Interior View Of A Steel Factory

The next type of heat treatment can be said to be something that is most commonly applied to stainless steel. Typical of any heat treatment process, annealing once again involves a form of manipulation within the particular metal’s crystal structuring through targeted means. Particularly, annealing in stainless steel aims to reduce the metal alloy’s hardenability, or the measure of how easily the steel can be hardened when it undergoes rapid cooling.

Compounded with reducing the metal’s hardenability, annealing aims to increase the ductility of the stainless steel material, in order for it to withstand greater levels of bending force before it is subjected to breakage.

The annealing process for stainless steel typically begins with the application of heat at temperatures ranging from 1000 degrees to 12000 degrees Fahrenheit. Annealing is a process that can be thought of as ‘de-stressing’ the metal’s internal structuring to prevent instances of cracks or deformation.

 

Normalizing

While the purpose of this next type of heat treatment process is to also largely reduce the internal stresses in the metal’s structuring, it does not aim to increase the metal’s ductility, but rather to reduce it, in order to target the other properties. As mentioned before, different heat treatment processes are applied, depending on the industry’s desired purpose for the resulting metal. Since the process of annealing aims to increase a metal’s ability to bend before breakage, – an example of which would be that of bent steel rebar – normalizing, on the other hand, focuses itself on increasing the tensile strength and machinability of the metal.

Simply put, machinability refers to the ease by which metal is able to be drilled, cut, and shaped in various ways, allowing it to be used in various specialized functions. The normalizing process typically begins with applying heat on the metal, at temperatures ranging from 40 degrees to 50 degrees Celsius above the particular metal’s upper critical temperature. It is then left to cool at room temperature.

 

Tempering

Steel Production In Electric Furnaces

The next kind of heat treatment process is a process that goes along with the hardening method. Unlike the previous two, however, where there was an application of heat energy at a particular temperature, a metal can undergo tempering in three categories, namely low-temperature tempering, medium-temperature tempering, and high-temperature tempering.

Tempering aims to reduce the brittleness of the metal, especially in the process of manufacturing it into a tool.

 

Nitriding

Unlike the first four types of heat treatment process, nitriding refers to a method that employs the addition of a nitrogen gas element. This process begins with the application of temperatures between 450 to 510 degrees Celsius. The material is then placed inside an airtight container where it is surrounded by ammonia gas.

Nitriding a metal increases the strength of its surface, as well as, increases the level of resistance it has, to corrosion.

 

Key Takeaway

Other types of heat treatment processes exist, depending on the desired function of the resulting metal. While this process of altering a metal’s physical and chemical structuring typically begins with the application of heat, it differs in that each method particularly targets a specific property of that metal.

Hopefully, the guide above has presented with a brief overview of some of the various properties that different types of heat treatment processes aim to improve.

Thermal Conductivity in Stainless Steel and Aluminum

Thermal Conductivity In Stainless Steel And Aluminum

How are stainless steel and aluminum different in terms of thermal conductivity?

  1. Aluminum has better thermal conductivity
  2. High and low thermal conductivity are both useful
  3. Industries that benefit from high or low thermal conductivity

 

Stainless steel and aluminum have long been lauded as one of the most useful industrial materials being used today. Many different industries at different levels benefit from their use, thanks to their many wonderful characteristics. Aside from strength, durability, and versatility, aluminum and stainless steel have other attributes that make them truly useful.

One such attribute is thermal conductivity. This is the process by which thermal energy is transferred through matter and is usually measured in watts per kelvin per meter. Lower thermal conductivity means a lower rate of heat transfer while higher thermal conductivity means efficiency in conducting heat.

If you want to know more about the thermal conductivity of stainless steel and aluminum then continue reading because it could prove useful for you and your future industrial endeavors.

 

Aluminum has better thermal conductivity

Metal Texture Background

Right off the bat, the first thing of note between the two industrial materials is that aluminum has ‘better’ thermal conductivity. Important to note here that having high or low thermal conductivity is not inherently good nor bad. Aluminum simply has a relatively higher thermal conductivity. On the other hand, stainless steel has one of the lowest thermal conductivities for metal alloys.

Another metric used to track thermal conductivity is the British thermal unit (BTU), which uses a number to represent the ability of a material to conduct heat. Aluminum has BTU of 118 while steel has 17. Comparing both to another material like copper, which has a BTU of 223, aluminum can still be a better option because it is lighter, cheaper, and easier to work with and manipulate thanks to its low melting point. Aluminum is also the most abundant metal found in the earth’s crust, making it more accessible than other choices.

 

High and low thermal conductivity are both useful

Both high and low thermal conductivity is useful for many different applications. You just have to know which specific metal can get the job done for you. Aluminum conducts heat well and this makes it good for heat exchangers, heat sinks, and even for cooking materials such as pots and pans.

Since stainless steel is poor at conducting heat, it is better for manufacturing products that are exposed to high-temperature and corrosive environments such as automotive and aircrafts parts like engines and airconditioning systems. Using stainless steel can result in better energy efficiency which eventually leads to savings in the long run.

 

Industries that benefit from high or low thermal conductivity

Clean Saucepan On A Gas Stove In Kitchen

There are many specific industries beyond that value a material’s thermal conductivity, regardless if they are high or low. For example, the construction industry is known for using stainless steel for countless structures and their parts. It is good for building facades, foundations, curtain walls, and other architecturally exposed structure designs. The food industry also uses stainless steel to keep production processes stable where heat is involved. This can be seen in ovens and conveyor belts.

As for aluminum, the automotive and aerospace industries are its biggest beneficiaries because many car and airplane parts are made using aluminum. In fact, most air and spacecraft are made primarily using aluminum with the Boeing 737, the best-selling jet commercial airliner, being 80% aluminum. Even in small-scale product manufacturing, aluminum is widely used. It is a crucial component of light-emitting diodes or L.E.D lights, heat exchangers in electronics, and is also used for packaging, the second-biggest consumer of aluminum.

Aluminum is more malleable and elastic than steel. Aluminum can be used to form different shapes

 

Key Takeaway

The concept of thermal conductivity is complex, but knowing how and why they matter to many industries and manufacturing processes can be useful in helping you choose the right kind of metal alloy or material for future endeavors. Both stainless steel and aluminum are great, but it’s their less-popular qualities like their ability to conduct heat at varying levels that can make the difference.

Click here if you want to know more about aluminum and stainless steel because there is certainly more to know about these wonderful metals.

Top 5 Welding Hazards and How You Can Avoid Them

Welder Welding Metal In Workshop With Sparks

What are some of the most common welding hazards?

  1. Fires and explosions
  2. Electric shock
  3. Toxic fumes and gases
  4. Noise-related hazards

 

One of the most important things you should remember about aluminum welding and all other types of welding is that they can pose a risk to your health and general well-being if you are not careful or wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Despite the necessity of welding in countless industrial processes, you would do well to know what the hazards of welding are and how you can avoid them.

 

Fires and explosions

You probably already know that welding entails the use of high temperatures to combine different metals. However, this can also pose a danger to all the people involved because high temperatures can cause fires and explosions if the necessary safety procedures aren’t practiced.

While the welding arc may reach temperatures of 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the real danger lies in the intense heat near the arc and the sparks or spatters that the arc creates. These sparks can reach up to 35 feet in distance from welding space, and if there are any flammable materials within that range, fire hazards are more likely to occur.

To prevent fires and explosions from happening, inspect the work area for any flammable materials and remove them before welding. You should be wary of all the different flammable materials such as liquids like gasoline, oil, and paint. Flammable solids include wood, paper, and cardboard. There are plenty of flammable gasses, but the most common ones are acetylene, hydrogen, and propane.

Aside from keeping track of flammable materials, you should also know where the fire extinguishers are in case of emergencies and ensure that fire alarms are working properly. If no extinguishers are available, have fire hoses, sand buckets, and fire-dousing equipment at hand. Finally, have a ‘fire watcher’ observe while you work so that you have an added level of protection as you work. The fire watcher is also in charge of putting out smoldering fires if there are any left after you are done welding.

When a fire does happen, do not panic and head for the fire exits immediately. Contact the fire department as soon as possible to prevent fires from getting out of control.

 

Electric shock

Electric Shock

Aside from fires and explosions, electric shocks are one of the most serious risks a welder faces. Electric shocks can lead to severe injury and even death, so this is one hazard you shouldn’t overlook. In terms of how it happens, electric shocks occur when two metal objects that have a voltage touch — effectively inserting themselves into the electrical circuit.

Bare wires are often the offenders in this regard as electrical currents will pass through open wires and the welder. The higher the voltage is and the higher the current, the graver the effects will be for the one affected. However, the most common type of electric shock is called secondary voltage shock that comes from an arc welding circuit. It produces 20 to 100 volts, but keep in mind that 50 volts are enough to harm or cause potentially life-threatening injuries to an operator.

Avoid electrical shock by wearing the proper protective equipment while welding. This includes dry rubberized gloves and shoes that are not electrically conductive. Aside from wearing equipment, make sure to avoid touching metal parts with wet hands or clothing. Insulation is key, so evaluate the work area and conditions before operating to see if there is enough insulation between you, the metals you are working with, and the ground.

 

Toxic fumes and gases

Toxic fumes and gases are often called ‘silent killers’ because of their gaseous nature. The resulting fumes from welding can contain potentially harmful metal oxide compounds from the metals being worked on. This is more evident when welding aluminum or stainless steel because these metal alloys coatings that react to the heat of the welding arc.

To avoid this hazard, keep your head out of the fumes and ensure that there is enough ventilation or exhaust systems in your work area to control the concentration of fumes. This also helps in preventing fumes to spread to other areas where people could be affected.

If the air in your breathing zone is visibly cloudy or if breathing is suddenly uncomfortable, leave the area immediately and check on the ventilation equipment provided if they are working properly. If they are malfunctioning report this immediately to your supervisor to ensure safe working conditions for and your other workmates. Check-in with your physician if you are noticing symptoms and adverse health effects from too much inhalation of fumes and gases produced by welding.

 

Noise-related hazards

Industrial Worker Welding

Welding activities also entail exposure to loud noises for a prolonged period of time. Any loud noise above 85 decibels on average is considered harmful to the ears. Different types of welding such as flame cutting or air arc gouging can produce noise levels well above 100 decibels, which means you should pay extra attention to your ears as well if you are going to be welding for extended periods.

Regular or immediate exposure to loud noises can cause permanent noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus or chronic ringing in the ears, vertigo, and high blood pressure. Wear the appropriate protective gear such as earplugs and maintain a relatively good distance between your head and the welding site to minimize the negative effects on your ear.

 

Key Takeaway

Aside from the ones mentioned above, your eyes are also particularly vulnerable to UV rays and sparks which also stresses the importance of personal protective equipment. Follow the tips above if you are going to welding aluminum, stainless steel, and any other metal alloy. This not only protects you and the people around you but it also allows you to do a better job consistently.

Difference of Glass and Aluminum in Your Cell Phone’s Material

Difference Of Glass And Aluminum In Your Cell Phone’s Material

What are the differences between glass and aluminum when used in your cell phone’s material?

  1. Aluminum
  • Superior material
  • Heat dissipater
  • Durability
  • Waterproof
  1. Glass
  • Improved reception
  • Better wireless charging
  • Customization
  • Recyclability

 

You may think that all smartphones are built just the same. But have you ever wondered how smartphone manufacturers choose to build their products with one material and another? Over the years, the smartphone market has changed drastically. Among glass and aluminum suppliers in the Philippines, for the most part, are the two most popular materials to choose from are aluminum and glass.

Despite the numerous options, what smartphone builder would you actually prefer? Here’s all you should know about the difference between aluminum and glass as components of the perfect smartphone material.

 

Aluminum

Aluminum

Aluminum and Magnesium metals are used in many different products. From technical devices to construction and even furniture, it is one of the most commonly used materials in smartphones. The material itself is malleable and it allows manufacturers to be more creative when designing smartphones that are fit for every person’s need. Read on to find out why aluminum is an amazing material for smartphones.

 

  • Superior Material

For many smartphone users, metal is equal to premium. Seeing an aluminum phone polished and coated with a crisp finish does indeed make a phone look good. A lot of people associate it as high-quality material; it’s light and more durable than glass in most cases.

The minimal markings and no extraneous parts to take away from a single piece of metal in a certain shape to form a complete design aesthetic. It often ties well in a premium look and garnering many fans of its design.

 

  • Heat Dissipater

Touch is one of the primary human senses. In comparison to its other material counterparts, a metal smartphone can disperse more heat generated by the processor and internals of the device.

A smartphone with a metal casing can offer better protection to the internal components in comparison with other competing materials. Metal transfers heat much better than any other material, it gets cold when you stop using it and best of all, it feels good in the hands.

 

  • Durability

Aluminum is especially durable in end use. The required energy in combination with the long life-span is what makes the material durable. Aluminum body smartphones can withstand some rough treatment.

Also, the fact that aluminum casing provides better protection to the internals as an added advantage. Using aluminum in smartphones requires less maintenance than other metals.

 

  • Waterproof

Aluminum enclosures give electronics quality protection from atmospheric and marine corrosion. Smartphones with IP67 and IP68 rating means smartphones can survive splashes of rain, water, or even a spill. Waterproof means that your phone will be fine if it’s completely submerged or soaked.

 

Glass

Glass

Glass has become the material choice for flagship mobile phones. Although glass can be fragile compared to aluminum, it became a popular feature because it looks great and the heavy-feel gives the users a feel of luxury. Aluminosilicate glass, more commonly known as Gorilla Glass, is the most common type used for the external casing of the smartphone.

 

  • Improved Reception

Among glass and aluminum suppliers in the Philippines, glass is the ideal material for better antenna performance for your phone. Other materials lack radio frequency (RF) transparency, meaning the antenna on your device can have a hard time finding a signal.

Phones with glass designs mean more bars whether you’re in a different location that leads to faster data transmission. Wi-Fi, LTE, and Bluetooth are stronger without the need for outdated antenna lines inserted on the frames.

 

  • Better Wireless Charging

Today’s smartphones are upgrading one of their features to wireless charging. It’s also a practical consideration, unlike metals that can interfere with the latest charging technology. Glass is used as the metal’s alternative on the back of the phone so that consumers can rely on a glass for a faster charge without having to plug the device to a traditional charger.

 

  • Customization

Most materials on the back of phones don’t have the same optical transparency requirements as the front display. With glass, it can provide smartphone designers with new ways to upgrade its customization. Glass can offer scratch resistance compared to other materials and you can choose from a variety of different palettes of colors with premium quality photo images.

 

  • Recyclability

Recycling cell phones help the environment by saving energy, conserving natural resources, and keeping reusable materials out of landfills. Glass materials can be recycled using conventional recycling techniques. Energy is saved when the percent of the glass is recycled increases because less raw materials would be needed to be extracted.

 

Key Takeaway

Every glass and aluminum supplier in the Philippines will tell you that these two materials make the best smartphones we use every day. Each material has their own strengths and weaknesses, whether in their structural ability or radio signal frequency. But in the end, it all boils down to personal preference. After all, the most important consideration is what the consumer wants and the manufacturer has applied in their industrial design.

6 Reasons Behind Aluminum’s Growing Popularity

6 Reasons Behind Aluminum’s Growing Popularity

What are the reasons behind aluminum’s growing popularity?

  1. Aluminum market
  2. Used in packaging
  3. Consumer goods
  4. Passed CAFE standards
  5. Alloys
  6. Everyday strength

The versatility of aluminum is so incredibly vast. This is essentially why it’s often regarded as one of the favored metals among aluminum suppliers in the Philippines. Aluminum can be processed in so many different ways and is often used in different applications where high strength and durability are critical considerations. It’s lightweight and malleable properties even make it the popular metal we use in our day-to-day living. Read on to know more reasons why aluminum is continuously becoming popular all around the world.

 

Aluminum Market

Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements that can be found on the earth’s crust. The bauxite ore is mined and refined into a powder which is then smelted into aluminum. The metal is a common commodity traded in many metal exchanges. Its total price often varies with the market, often with an overall much better value than other metals.

Aluminum is also a highly recyclable material, which means costs can be frugal for both metal and fabrication over long periods of time. It’s increasingly becoming a global market titan with the rise of companies like One Sky in the Philippines. Aluminum adds value to automotive markets while also filling the void on lower margin, commodity type grades.

 

Used in Packaging

Used In Packaging

As everyday consumers, we often see aluminum in different kinds of packaging as it holds heat and lightweight materials. One of the most common items we use is aluminum foil. In making a roll of aluminum foil, aluminum first passes through rolling mills at a particular pressure to get the right thickness. It is then later cooled and sent to a chilled rolling mill to prevent breakage.

Aluminum foil is also present in most homes and food industries. With everyday use, it helps pack food as well as line cooking pots and pans. Not only does it retain its temperature, but it also protects it. Aluminum prevents oxygen, moisture, and bacteria from damaging the food.

 

Consumer Goods

The appearance of aluminum is often used in consumer goods like smartphones, tablets, and flat-screen TVs. Its sophisticated appearance makes modern gadgets look sleek while at the same time light and durable.

Interior designers use aluminum because it’s easy to shape and looks aesthetically pleasing when making furniture items like lamps, chairs, and decorative panels. More and more, aluminum is replacing plastic and steel components, simply due to the fact that it is stronger than plastic and lighter than steel. It allows heat to disappear quickly, keeping it from overheating.

 

Passed CAFE standards

Passed Cafe Standards

Among some of the common materials used in manufacturing vehicles, aluminum is the most promising material to guide automakers towards raising their awareness of the new fuel-economy standards. In 2013, more automotive companies are looking for ways to increase fuel economy since CAFE or Corporate Average Fuel Economy decided to adopt new standards. Some of the solutions have prominently featured the aluminum material.

Although it is one-third of the weight of steel, utilizing aluminum largely reduces the mass of a vehicle while still maintaining its strength. It can also be treated in many ways and combined into various alloys meeting specific needs.

 

Alloys

There are different kinds of aluminum alloys that can give outstanding surface quality, resistant to corrosion, and high strength to weight ratio.

6000 series aluminum is alloyed with magnesium and silicon and heat treatable, allowing it to be hardened after forming. It also performs well during crash or safety tests.

The 5000 series or non-heat treatable aluminum is also alloyed with magnesium, but this time, exhibits moderate-to-good strength, great resistance to corrosion, and welding characteristics. Its applications range from fuel tanks to marine applications, truck trailers, architectural panels, and some non-critical parts for automotive purposes.

Next, the 3000 series non-heat treatable material is associated with moderate strength as a general purpose alloy. It’s one of the preferable alloy series because it’s inexpensive formability makes for a uniform appearance.

Lastly, the 1000 series is also known as commercially pure aluminum. The extreme malleability makes it a good material for electricity, food and chemical handling, and even lighting. It is the softest among the common alloys that are perfectly suitable for projects where deep drawing quality is necessary.

 

Everyday Strength

Everyday Strength

Aluminum’s strength and durability are also trusted by companies like One Sky Philippines for some of the most extreme uses imaginable. Aluminum is used in window frames and curtain walls of some of the world’s tallest skyscrapers.

The material itself is so versatile that it is even used in making airplanes, buses, trucks and even ocean liners. In short, every day, people around the world trust aluminum’s astounding capabilities whether they’re aware of it or not.

 

Key Takeaway

Many aluminum suppliers in the Philippines will tell you that there are countless uses and products of aluminum which no other metal can compare. Aluminum can be found in everyday convenience items that are small and useful, as well as provide strength and stability to larger and costlier productions like cars, gadgets, and even construction.